Thanks to modern chemistry, water testing lab in bokaro tata ranchi we can detect thousands of chemicals in water, even at extremely low concentrations. The ever-growing list of tests that are available can feel overwhelming, and the vast majority of methods require state-of-the art lab facilities. Fortunately, we don’t need to test for everything! A much smaller and more practical set of tests can provide a good sense of chemical water quality for monitoring purposes. The good news is that there are low-tech versions of these tests for situations when budgets are limited Water testing lab in bokaro tata ranchi
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Using Your Senses
Smell the water.
You can determine a great deal about the quality of your water by tuning in to your senses. Even if a professional water engineer were to come test your water quality, they would be sure to smell, taste, and visually examine the water. Test the quality of your water through your senses, first, by giving it a good smell.
- Bleach smell – This likely occurs from the chlorine your local treatment plant must add to your water to make it safe. This scent often dissipates if the water is exposed to air for a little while. Alternatively, you can purchase a home water filter to get rid of it. Generally, a bleach smell is not harmful.
- Rotten-egg smell – This sulfurous smell usually indicates a growth of bacteria. First, pour a glass of water and bring it to another part of the house, wait a few minutes, and then smell it. If the water no longer smells, then the bacteria is growing inside your drain and should be cleaned. If the water still smells strongly of rotten egg (and if this occurs with both hot and cold water), contact your local municipality.
- Musty or earthy smell – This smell is likely the result of organic matter decaying. Once again, this could either be inside your drain or in the water itself. Although this smell may be bothersome, it is most likely harmless.
Taste the water.
Use your taste buds to determine the quality of your water. First of all, if your water tastes very foul, spit it out! If your tap water has a metallic taste, this can be caused by either low pH levels, or excess minerals in your water supply (potentially due to rusty pipes). If your water taste like bleach, it could be an excess of chlorine. And if your water tastes salty, this could indicate the presence of chloride ions or sulfates, which could be caused by industrial waste or irrigation drainage. If the taste of your water offends you, contact your local municipality, or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Water testing lab in Bokaro tata Ranchi Dhanbad Jharkhand, Patna Bihar TDS check Quality RO industrial commercial plants test laboratory Water born deseases chemical biologocal physical Check for cloudiness and particles.
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Hold a glass of water up to the light and look for floating particles or general cloudiness. Brown, orange, or red particles can be caused by rust in pipes or fixtures. Black particles can come from the hoses that your water runs through (chlorine in the water can deteriorate these hoses over time). White or tan particles (or general cloudiness) can indicate excess calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate in your water. If you notice excess cloudiness or particulate matter in your water, contact your local municipality, or the EPA.
Examine the color.
Begin examining the color of your water by first allowing the water to run for a few minutes. (This will clear any build up from standing water in your fixtures). Then hold a glass of water up to the light. Brown, murky, or otherwise discolored water can be caused by a few factors: a new water source for your area, upstream pollution, or rusty pipes. If the color of your water seems wrong to you, contact your local municipality, or the EPA.
Check your pipes for corrosion or build-up. If your pipes have a great deal of corrosion or mineral build-up, it means that excess rust or other minerals have been getting into your water. There are a few ways you look for corrosion or build-up around your house. If your pipes have a great deal of build-up, have them looked over by a professional plumber and contact your local municipality.
- If your pipes are above ground, look for any areas that leak or have blue and/or white sediment.
- If your pipes are harder to get to, look inside your toilet bowl for rust, or around the base of your toilet for blue stains.
- If you are having any plumbing work done, ask to see inside a cut portion of your pipe. Look for blue, white, or rust-colored build-up.
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- Water Quality Tests
- Various water quality tests are available to detect the number and types of microorganisms in waters and assist communities in keeping the microbial content of water supplies at a low level. These tests vary from the more sophisticated tests to the standard procedures that have been used for decades.
- Gene probe tests.Among the most sophisticated tests for water bacteriology are those that employ gene probes.Gene probes are fragments of DNA that seek out and combine with complementary DNA fragments. Often the test is designed to test for the presence of Escherichia coli in water. This Gram-negative rod, usually found in the human intestine, is used as an indicator organism. If it is present, then it is likely that the water has been contaminated with human feces. The feces may contain microbial pathogens.
- To use a gene probe test for coliin water, the water is treated to disrupt any bacteria present and release their nucleic acid. Then a specific E. coliprobe is added to the water. Like a left hand seeking a right hand, the probe searches through all the nucleic acid in the water and unites with the E. coli DNA, if present. A radioactive signal indicates that a match has been made. If no radioactivity is emitted, then the gene probe has been unable to locate its matching DNA, and E. coli is probably absent from the water.
- The membrane filter technique.The membrane filter techniqueuses a filtration apparatus and a cellulose filter called a membrane filter. A 100-ml sample of water is passed through the filter, and the filter pad is then transferred to a bacteriological growth medium. Bacteria trapped in the filter grow on the medium and form colonies. By counting the colonies, an estimate can be made of the number of bacteria in the original 100-ml sample.
- The standard plate count.It is generally impractical to test for all pathogenic organisms, but the total number of bacteria can be calculated. One test is thestandard plate count.In this test, samples of water are diluted in jars containing 99-ml sterile water, and samples are placed in Petri dishes with nutrient agar or other nutritious medium (Figure 1 ). After incubation, the colony count is taken and multiplied by the dilution factor to obtain the total number of bacteria per ml of sample.
- The standard plate count procedure. A 1‐mL water sample is diluted in buffer solution, and various amounts are placed with nutrient medium into Petri dishes to encourage bacterial colonies to form. The colony count is multiplied by the dilution factor to yield the total plate count.
- Indicator bacteria can be detected to give an estimate of pathogens. The most common indicator organisms in water bacteriology are the coliform bacteria.These are Gram-negative rods normally found in the intestine and typified by Escherichia coli. To test for the presence of coliforms, a standard plate count can be performed, with violet red bile agarused as the growth medium to encourage proliferation of the coliform bacteria.
- The most probable number test.In the most probable number (MPN) test, tubes of lactose broth are inoculated with water samples measuring 10 ml, 1 ml, and 0.1 ml. During incubation, coliform organisms produce gas. Depending upon which tubes from which water samples display gas, an MPN table is consulted and a statistical range of the number of coliform bacteria is determined. The MPN test is very easy to perform and interpret, but it does not determine the exact number of bacteria as the standard plate count does.
- In order to test for the presence of coliin water, a medium called eosin methylene blue (EMB) agaris used. On this medium, E. coli colonies become green with a metallic fluorescent sheen.
Sources of Bacteria in Drinking Water:
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The Need for Water Testing lab in bokaro tata ranchi
Water testing lab in bokaro tata ranchi Dhanbad Jharkhand, Patna Bihar TDS check Human and animal wastes are a primary source of bacteria in water. These sources of bacterial contamination include runoff from feedlots, pastures, dog runs, and other land areas where animal wastes are deposited. Additional sources include seepage or discharge from septic tanks, sewage treatment facilities, and natural soil/plant bacteria. Bacteria from these sources can enter wells that are either open at the land surface or do not have water-tight casings or caps Water testing lab in bokaro tata ranchi Dhanbad Jharkhand, Patna Bihar TDS check.
Insects, rodents or animals entering the well are other sources of contamination. Old wells were dug by hand and lined (cased) with rocks or bricks. Water testing lab in bokaro tata ranchi Dhanbad Jharkhand, Patna Bihar TDS check biological test physical test. These wells usually have large openings and casings that often are not well-sealed. This makes it easy for insects, rodents, or animals to enter the well.
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Another way bacteria can enter a water supply is through inundation or infiltration by flood waters or by surface runoff. Flood waters commonly contain high levels of bacteria. Small depressions filled with flood water provide an excellent breeding ground for bacteria. Whenever a well is inundated by flood waters or surface runoff, bacterial contamination is likely. Shallow wells and wells that do not have water-tight casings can be contaminated by bacteria infiltrating with the water through the soil near the well, especially in coarse-textured soils.
Older water systems, especially, dug wells, spring-fed systems, and cistern-type systems are most vulnerable to bacterial contamination. Any system with casings or caps that are not water-tight are vulnerable. This is particularly true if the well is located so surface runoff might be able to enter the well. During the last five to 10 years, well and water distribution system construction has improved to the point where bacterial contamination is rare in newer wells.